Chapter 1:Special Education
The content in this chapter is presented to help you achieve the following objectives. Once you complete your study of the chapter, see if you can do what the objectives describe. If not, you may need to do some more reviewing of the chapter and your class notes.
- define students with special needs
- define special education
- Describe the objectives of special education
- Differentiate among various placement opportunities
· Explain models of inclusive education
- Identify the special needs categories
This chapter explains definitions of students with special needs, definition of special education, Objectives of special education, placement alternatives (residential institutions, special day schools, special classes, regular classrooms with resource room facilities, regular classrooms with itinerant teacher, regular classrooms with teacher consultant, regular classrooms). After considering a variety of terminology have been in vogue over the last three decades for moving towards integrated and inclusive education the chapter examines types or models of inclusive education as model of full inclusion and models of partial inclusion. Finally, the chapter briefly considers the Classification of students with special needs.
Students with Special Needs
Students with special needs are those who require special education and related services until they are to realize their full human potential. They require special education because they are markedly different from most students in one or more of the following ways: they may have intellectual disabilities, learning or attention disabilities, behavioral disorders, physical disabilities, disorders of communication, autism, traumatic brain injury, impaired hearing, impaired sight, or special gift or talents and etc (Hallahan & et al, 2009).
Special education means specially designed instruction that meets the special needs of exceptional children. Special materials, teaching techniques, or equipment and or facilities may be required. for example, children with visual impairment may require reading materials in large print of Braille; Students with hearing impairment may require hearing aids and or instruction in sign language, those with physical disabilities may need special equipment, students with emotional and behavioral disorders may need smaller and more highly structured classes. Related services such as special transportation, psychological assessment, physical and occupational therapy, medical treatment, and counseling is necessary until special education is to be effective (Hallahan & et al, 2009).
Objectives of Special Education
1. To help the children with special needs in bringing an all-round development in their personality.
2. To help them in actualizing their abilities and capacities to the maximum extent possible.
3. To help them in knowing and accepting themselves with their deficiencies or abundance of capacities in one or the other aspects of their personality.
4. To work for bringing educational opportunities to the doorsteps of every child with special needs, irrespective of his disability limitation or strength in one or the other areas of his development.
5. To help adjustment of the children with special needs to their self and the environment.
6. To help the children with special needs to learn and acquire necessary skills for their self-help, independent living and leading future life as properly as possible.
7. To help them to acquire necessary social skills, emotional literacy to live and participate in school, home and community life as properly as possible.
8. To help them in receiving instructions and learning experiences in tune with their learning abilities and specific individualities.
9. To help them in seeking their integration into the mainstream by providing them the least restrictive environment for their educational placement.
10.To help them in acquiring learning experiences and training by the use of materials, methods, techniques, aids and equipment, assistive devices and etc, as per tune with the nature of their needs.
11. To help them in getting appropriate, educational, personal and vocational guidance for their adequate adjustment, development and education.
12.To help them in seeking remedy of their specific and special needs and problems through the direct, indirect and support services of special human resources like special education teachers, special education experts, psychologists, therapists, medical professionals, speech and language pathologists, social workers, etc.
13. To help them in seeking their successful transition from school to community and provide vocational and employment oriented training for being adjusted in the world of occupation.
14. To recognize and respond to all learners with special needs, i.e. the gifted, children at risk and adult disabled.
15. To make early intervention programs of preventive, remedial or compensatory nature available to the children with special needs.
16. To change the attitude of society in accepting them and identifying their needs.
18. To utilize their contributions for the progress of the country and in turn increase their self-concept and status in society (Mangal, 2009).
طبقه بندی: معرفی كتاب و منابع، روانشناسی و آموزش كودكان دارای نیازهای ویژه( آموزش وپژه)،
برچسب ها: متون تخصصی دانشجویان آموزش ویژه،